Catalytic Performance for Transesterification Reaction Using Waste Cooking Oils Over Nano-Calcium Oxide (n-CaO) Catalyst from Different Waste Bones
The trans-esterification processes of refined waste groundnut oil (WGO) and sunflower oil (WSO) was optimized using calcium oxide produced from three different animal bones after incineration and characterization. The bone samples were crushed and calcined at 600 oC into fine powders with particulate dimension size of 49 nm. The calcined bones such as, calcined fish bone (CFB), calcine cow bone (CCB), and calcined chicken bone (CCHB) were characterized using the transmission electron microscope (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray fluorescence (XRF), Brunnar Emmet Teller (BET), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) techniques.The powdered calcium oxide (CaO) was obtained from the waste animal bones to produced methyl ester (FAMEs). The effect of the catalyst dosage ratio on the physicochemical properties such as, yield, specific gravity, density, kinematic viscosity, and acid values of the produced biodiesel were studied and evaluated. The analysis of results using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS software) showed maximum catalyst dosage and yield for groundnut-based biodiesel (GNB) with CCB at 3.0 wt.% with yield 95.0 % followed by sunflower based biodiesel (SFB) with CCB 4.0 wt. % with yield 95.0 %. The best optimal trans-esterification reaction conditions were a 1:6 molar ratio of oil to methanol, 1 hour reaction period, a 333 K reaction temperature, stirring rate of 1000 rpm, and 3-4 wt. % CaO catalyst loading. This study revealed that waste cooking oils and the obtained calcium oxide were good sources of raw materials that canenhance optimal production of biodiesel that meet the American standards for testing materials ASTM requirements.
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